Is Joint Physical Custody in the best interests of the child? - Parent-child relationships and custodial arrangements

Is joint physical custody in the best interest of the child? Parent-child relationships and custodial arrangements.

admin Children's Well-being, Gender Biases, Parenting Plans, Rights of the Child

In legislation, there has been a shift from sole custody, mainly for mothers, to joint physical custody. This is believed to be in the best interest of the child, as children can maintain a good relationship with both their mother and their father after a parental divorce.

Plenary Session - Plenary Speakers Panel Discussion Day 2

Plenary Session – Plenary Speakers Panel Discussion Day 2

admin Children's Well-being, Consensus Report, Custody, Gate-keeping, Legal, New Evidence, Parental Alienation, Parenthood, Parenting Plans, Parenting Time, Quality vs. Quantity, Relocation, Research, Rights of the Child, Shared Parenting, Social Capital

Facilitator: Prof. Donald Hubin Ohio State University, USA

Speakers:
Dr. Michael Lamb Cambridge University, UK
Prof. Edward Kruk ISCP President, University of British Columbia, Canada
Dr. Malin Bergström Karolinska Institute, Sweden
Prof. Hildegund Sünderhauf Lutheran University of Applied Sciences Nuremberg, Germany
Prof. Patrick Parkinson University of Sydney, Australia
Dr. William Austin Child Custody Services, USA

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Critical analysis

Critical analysis of research on parenting plans and children’s well-being

admin Children's Well-being, Parenting Plans, Research, Shared Parenting

In order to understand children’s responses to the divorce or separation of their parents, it is important to understand normative processes of development, including the development of child-parent relationships, stress reactivity, vulnerability and resilience, as well as individual differences in these domains. In that context, it is easier to conceptualize the diverse ways in which children with different backgrounds might be affected by their parents’ separation. My presentation will review published research from this perspective.

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Shared parenting and parental alienation - current state and future directions for research

Shared parenting and parental alienation: current state and future directions for research

admin Children's Well-being, Parenting Plans, Shared Parenting

The intersection of shared parenting and parental alienation is a vital issue for social science research, as it has long been argued that parental alienation flourishes in situations where one parent has exclusive care and control of children, and primary residence of children is often granted to parents with serious psychological problems who mount the stronger case in the adversarial arena (McMurray and Blackmore, 1992; Kruk, 2013). Yet according to Saini et al (2016), there are still relatively few high-quality studies of parental alienation, and the alienation phenomenon remain a hypothesis in need of further empirical testing.
This presentation will examine the current state of research on parental alienation, arguing that research advances over the past two years allow us to conclude that parental alienation is far more common and debilitating, for both children and parents, than previously believed. I will argue that given the social science consensus on the reality of parental alienation, the need for research on the effectiveness of different approaches to parental alienation reunification is urgently needed, as reunification programs are rapidly being developed in response to the increasing professional recognition of parental alienation and the corresponding demand for reunification programs. A case will be made for the need for both quantitative research from the perspective of children and parents themselves and qualitative research utilizing a “simulated client” data gathering technique. The presentation will conclude with a summary of the current state of knowledge on parental alienation, and specific recommendations for the study of reunification programs.

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Prof. Hildegund Sunderhauf - Legal and Social Development of Shared Physical Custody in Europe

Legal and social development of shared physical custody in Europe

admin Legal, Parenting Plans, Research

Since WW II, the role model in families has changed all over Europe from the “bread earning father and housewife”- ideal to both working parents with shared parental responsibility (legally and physically). This change has been followed by law in a first step already: Countries in Europe have changed from single legal custody after divorce to shared legal custody. As a second step law is changing from sole custody to shared physical custody. Looking at the development in several European countries makes a prognosis possible: shared parenting will be the legal presumption and getting “normal” soon. The European Convention on the Exercise of Children’s Rights and article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights guarantee for a parent and child, being together as an essential part of family life. Due to this and due to the doctrine of nondiscrimination to fathers, the parliamentary assembly of the Council of Europe passed in October 2015 Resolution No. 2079 “quality and shared parental responsibility: The role of fathers.” This resolution includes the strong recommendation to all nations to introduce into their laws the principle of shared residence following a separation, limiting any exceptions to cases of child abuse or neglect, or domestic violence.

Plenary Speakers Panel Discussion - Facilitator - Prof. Donald Hubin - Day 1

Plenary Speakers Panel Discussion – Facilitator – Prof. Donald Hubin – Day 1

admin Children's Well-being, Consensus Report, Custody, Gate-keeping, New Evidence, Parental Alienation, Parenthood, Parenting Plans, Parenting Time, Quality vs. Quantity, Relocation, Research, Rights of the Child, Shared Parenting, Social Capital

Facilitator:
Prof. Donald Hubin Ohio State University, USA

Speakers:
Dr. Richard Warshak University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, USA
Dr. Irwin Sandler Arizona State University, USA
Dr. Kari Adamsons University of Connecticut, USA
Dr. Sanford Braver Arizona State University, USA
Dr. Pamela Ludolph University of Michigan, USA
Dr. William Fabricius Arizona State University, USA
Dr. Linda Nielsen Wake Forest University, USA

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Shared care for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers raises heated debates, and presents challenges in creating parenting plans. Traditional custody arrangements have restricted the father’s time with young children based on attachment theory, as construed by John Bowlby in the 1950’s and 1960’s.The theory warned against separating young children from their mothers for fear of undermining a secure attachment which would, in turn, have long-lasting effects on the child. According to subsequent research by Lamb and others, however, babies form attachments to both parents. Both mothers and fathers play unique and critical roles in the earliest years of their child’s development. In addition, the recent work of attachment researchers has shown that the link between early childhood attachment to mothers and children’s future outcomes is weak and inconsistent. At present there is little evidence for setting limits on children’s overnight parenting time with their fathers. The few studies available are not methodologically sound. Nor is there an empirical basis for checklists such as CODIT (“Charting Overnight Decisions for Infants and Toddlers”), which has recently emerged as a list of children’s behaviors and family circumstances that purportedly determine whether overnighting is appropriate for particular families. Checklists such as CODIT—which is currently posted on Oregon’s family court website— should not be used as guidelines for creating custody plans. Suggestions are offered for parenting plans for very young children based on available research and advice in the literature, as well as the experience of a forensic psychologist and clinician.

Shared care for very young children: Research, theory, and custody arrangements

admin Custody, Parenting Plans, Shared Parenting

Shared care for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers raises heated debates, and presents challenges in creating parenting plans. Traditional custody arrangements have restricted the father’s time with young children based on attachment theory, as construed by John Bowlby in the 1950’s and 1960’s.The theory warned against separating young children from their mothers for fear of undermining a secure attachment which would, in turn, have long-lasting effects on the child. According to subsequent research by Lamb and others, however, babies form attachments to both parents. Both mothers and fathers play unique and critical roles in the earliest years of their child’s development. In addition, the recent work of attachment researchers has shown that the link between early childhood attachment to mothers and children’s future outcomes is weak and inconsistent. At present there is little evidence for setting limits on children’s overnight parenting time with their fathers. The few studies available are not methodologically sound. Nor is there an empirical basis for checklists such as CODIT (“Charting Overnight Decisions for Infants and Toddlers”), which has recently emerged as a list of children’s behaviors and family circumstances that purportedly determine whether overnighting is appropriate for particular families. Checklists such as CODIT—which is currently posted on Oregon’s family court website— should not be used as guidelines for creating custody plans. Suggestions are offered for parenting plans for very young children based on available research and advice in the literature, as well as the experience of a forensic psychologist and clinician.

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